Satellite and probe missions for water remote sensing on Earth, planets, and other celestial bodies
10/11 – Tuesday
9:30 - 10:00 The SMOS Satellite Mission, for a better understanding of Earth Water lifecycle (Vicente Ruiz)
10:00 - 10:20 Validation Strategy for Space-Observed Soil Moisture Products at the Valencia Anchor Station (Ernesto Lopez-Baeza)
10:20 - 10:40 Validation SMOS L2 Soil Moisture Products with in-situ data over a Vegetated Tropical Region in Malaysia (Chuen Siang Kang)
10:40 - 11:00 Surface runoff estimation using smos observations and blend of weather radar information and rain gauge network in the jucar river basin, spain (Julio Alberto Garcia Leal)
Surface runoff is deﬁned as the amount of water that originates from precipitation that not inﬁltrated due to soil saturation and therefore circulates over the surface. A good estimation of surface runoff improves the design of draining systems, the structures for ﬂood control and soil utilisation, for example. There exist several methods for estimation of surface runoff such as (i) rational method, (ii) isochrone method, (iii) triangular hydrograph, (iv) non-dimensional SCS hydrograph, (v) Temez hydrograph, (vi) kinematic wave model, represented by the dynamics and kinematics equations for a uniforme precipitation regime, and (vii) SCS-CN (Soil Conservation Service Curve Number) model.
This work presents an advanced application of the SCS-CN method by using ESA SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission soil moisture data and merging weather radar information and rain gauge network for more accurate estimates of precipitation. The area of application is the Jucar River Basin Authority area, Eastern Spain, where is one of our objectives to develop the SCS-CN model in a spatial way. The results are being preliminary compared to the simulations of a SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) precipitation-runoff model applied to the same area.
11:30 - 11:50 Hydro-Climatological Study of the Jucar River Basin Soil Moisture Fields with ERA-Interim/Land Reanalyses. Consistency with In-situ Measurements and SMOS Updated Reprocessed Data (Pau Beneto-Valle)
11:50 - 12:10 Water Resource Development Plan in WGKKC2 watershed using Geospatial strategy (Swati Katiyar)
12:10 - 12:30 Delineation of Water Features into Different Classes in Uttarakhand state, India (Manohar Kumar)
12:30 - 12:50 A Preliminary Approach Towards the Comparison Between AQUARIUS and SMOS Brightness Temperatures for Heteorogeneous Land Areas (Ernesto Lopez-Baeza)
Intercomparison between Aquarius and SMOS brightness temperatures (TBs) over land surfaces is more challenging than over oceans because land footprints are more heterogeneous.
In this work we are comparing Aquarius and SMOS TBs under coherente conditions obtained either by considering similar areas or according to land uses. The area of study was chosen in central Spain where we could get a significant number of matches between both instruments. The study period corresponded to 2012-2014. SMOS level-3 data were obtained from the Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS (CATDS) and Aquarius’ from the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PODAAC).
Land uses were obtained from the Spanish SIOSE facility (Sistema de Informacion de Ocupacion del Suelo en España) that uses a scale of 1:25.000 and polygon geometrical structure layer. SIOSE is based on panchromatic and multispectral 2.5 m resolution SPOT-5 images together with Landsat-5 images and orthophotos from the Spanish Nacional Plan of Aerial Orthophotography (PNOA).
SMOS ascending TBs were compared to inner-beam Aquarius descending half-orbit TBs coinciding over the study area at 06:00 h. The Aquarius inner beam has an incidence angle of 28,7º and SMOS data were considered for the 27,5º incidence angle. The Aquarius variable considered was rad_toa_X_nolc (TB at TOA with X pol and including Faraday’s rotation correction). The SMOS products corresponded to version 2.6x (data before 31st October 2013) and version 2.7x (data after 1st January 2014).
Intersections between both footprints have been analysed under both conditions of similar areas and land uses. For the latter, a linear combination of SMOS land uses has been obtained to match the larger Aquarius footprint. The results obtained permit to conclude that the land-uses approach gives better results. In both methods, also considering similar areas, the bias for H pol is notably reduced to 2 K.
Two more approaches are also under development, namely stratifying by means of a dryness index that accounts for the dynamics of the vegetation instead of assuming static characteristics for the land use map and what we consider to be a more physically approach that is including the Aquarius antenna pattern in the aggregation of the SMOS data
12:50 - 13:00 10 min. for discussion
15:00 - 15:20 The SOMOSTA (Soil Moisture Monitoring Station) Experiment. Soil Moisture Remote Sensing with GNSS-R at the Valencia Anchor Station (Cong YIN)
15:20 - 15:40 AFREF: Concept, Progress and Preliminary Results from Permanent GNSS Networks in Africa (Salah Mahmoud)
15:40 - 16:10 The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Observing Rain and Snow for Science and Society (Gail s Jackson)
16:10 - 16:30 Climatological Classification and Rainfall Retrieval Analysis of Precipitating Clouds in the Brazilian Northeastern Region Using the Precipitation Radar (PR) onboard TRMM Satellite (Rayana Araujo)
Precipitation is one of the most important and more difficult variables to measures in the tropical region, especially in Northeastern Brazil (NEB) where the uneven distribution of rain-gauge stations and the lack of long-term ground radar datasets are critical factors to study some aspects of precipitating clouds in that region. This aims of this study is a twofold: (a) identify what types of clouds produce precipitation in NEB and how often these clouds occur and; (b) evaluate the performance of different Z-R relationships to retrieve rainfall in NEB region. Thus, for this study it was analyzed 15 years of Precipitation Radar (PR) data of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM) (period 1998-2012) to achieve the objectives of this research. TRMM satellite, while in orbit, had the scope to measure the amount of rainfall in tropical regions. One main instrument aboard this satellite is an active radar which aims to detect the three dimensional structure of clouds. In general, stratiform clouds are the most frequent category in NEB, but they are not associated with high accumulated values. On the other hand, deep convective clouds are not very frequent (the least frequent category) but they explain most of the rainfall occurred in continental areas. There is also a strong signal of shallow convective clouds (hot clouds) on coastal areas of Brazil and adjacent Northeast ocean that modulates rainfall in these areas. For the second part of this research, the Z-R relationship proposed by Tenorio (2010) showed a better performance for a set of stations in Alagoas and Sergipe states when compared with other approaches.
17:30 - 18:00 Understanding the Earth’s Water cycle – The Role of Satellite Observations (Christian Kummerow)
18:00 - 18:30 The CHUVA Project: A Contribution to the Understanding of the Water Cycle (Luiz A. T. Machado)
The CHUVA project (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)) has conducted six successful field campaigns. This project was designed to investigate a broad variety of tropical weather regimes, ranging from warm clouds in northeastern Brazil to Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCC) in the border with Argentina, including, among other topics, the aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction, the cloud electrification, the rainfall satellite estimation and the hydrometeor characteristics. The aim of this presentation is to summarize the CHUVA contribution to the understanding of the water cycle in Brazil and describe the ongoing activities to set up a new GV site close to the city of Campinas in the state of São Paulo. The project was subdivided in 4 main topics, the cloud life cycle and characteristics, the precipitation estimation, the electrification and cloud modeling. To further the measurements collected by CHUVA, the project established several partnership with NASA, for warm rain, with NOAA and EUMETSAT for cloud electrification, with Argentina (weather service and UBA) for cloud organization and with the GoAmazon experiments (DOE and DLR). For GoAmazon two campaigns were realized, one in the wet season, with the DOE airplane and during the dry to wet season with two airplanes the G1 (DOE) and HALO (DLR) in the context of the project ACRIDICON-CHUVA. All these campaigns allowed to improve the knowledge in the four topics described above. Some examples will be described to highlight the contribution of each of these topics. Finally, we will introduce the proposal we are submitting to have the radar and others instruments in a fixed location that cloud be employed as a target validation region for GPM.
18:30 - 19:00
19:00 - 19:20