Session 3

Satellite and probe missions for water remote sensing on Earth, planets, and other celestial bodies

10/11 – Tuesday

Morning

9:30 - 10:00 The SMOS Satellite Mission, for a better understanding of Earth Water lifecycle (Vicente Ruiz)

Authors
  1. Vicente Ruiz (ISDEFE, S.A.)
  2. Manuel Castillo (ISDEFE, S.A.)
Abstract

SMOS is a member of ESA’s Earth Explorers family focused on the science and research elements of ESA’s living Planet Programme. These Missions are designed to provide information on a number of critical Earth System variables and make significant steps towards understanding climate change.

The water cycle is one of the most important processes operating on our planet-sustaining life and controlling our weather and climate.

SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) addresses the current lack of global and continuous observations of soli moisture and ocean salinity needed to improve our knowledge of the water cycle. This is helping us to understand more about how a changing climate may be affecting patterns of evaporation over land and oceans.
Soil moisture is a critical component in temperature, humidity and precipitation forecasts. Data on soil moisture are urgently needed to help improve short and medium term meteorological forecasts and contribute to hydrological studies.
Along with temperature, ocean salinity is a key variable driving global ocean circulation patterns which in turn play a role in moderating our climate.

SMOS is designed to observe both soil moisture and ocean salinity with just one instrument. The theory behind this ability is based on the contrast between the electromagnetic properties of liquid water and dry soil, and pure water and saline water.
The SMOS 2D Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) employs a new measuring technique in space by operating at frequencies around 1,4 GHz (L-Band) to capture images of emitted microwave radiation from Earth. To do this, it carries 69 small antennas along three arms taht together form a Y shape. These antennas mimic the size of a much larger single antenna that would normally be needed at this frequency to obtain the required coverage and resolution.
SMOS was conceived as a cooperation Programme between the European Space Agency (ESA), the French Space Agency (CNES) and the Spanish Space Agency CDTI.
For the Operations Phase, ESA is responsible for the overall coordination of the Mission and the ground segment operations, whereas CNES operates the Spacecraft.
The overall coordination is carried out from ESA earth Observation Main Centre, ESRIN in Frascati (ITALY), the Payload Operations and the Data Reception, Processing and distribution Centre is carried out at ESAC, the Space Astronomy Centre of ESA in the vicinity of Madrid (Spain).
Tha satellite operations are carried out from the CNES Satellite Control Centre in Toulouse (France)and the data receiving Stations are located i nMadrid ( Spain and Svalbard (Norway).
SMOS is today a valuable tool with about 200 direct data users around the Planet and showing very promising results for a better understanding of our Planet Climate Change.

10:00 - 10:20 Validation Strategy for Space-Observed Soil Moisture Products at the Valencia Anchor Station (Ernesto Lopez-Baeza)

Authors
  1. Ernesto Lopez-Baeza, (University of Valencia, Faculty of Physics, Earth Physics & Thermodynamics Dept)
  2. Tania Casal (European Space Agency)
  3. M Amparo Coll-Pajaron (University of Valencia, Faculty of Physics, Earth Physics & Thermodynamics Dept)
  4. Roberto Fernandez-Moran (University of Valencia, Faculty of Physics, Earth Physics & Thermodynamics Dept)
  5. Niobe Peinado-Galan (University of Valencia, Faculty of Physics, Earth Physics & Thermodynamics Dept)
  6. Laura Perez-Yuste (University of Valencia, Faculty of Physics, Earth Physics & Thermodynamics Dept)
  7. Mike Schwank (Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research)
  8. Diego Soares (University of Valencia, Faculty of Physics, Earth Physics & Thermodynamics Dept)
  9. Jean-Pierre Wigneron (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique – Bordeaux)
  10. Yann H. Kerr (Centre d’Etudes Spatiales de la Biosphère)
Abstract

After more than five years of SMOS operations, the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) continues developing ground activities in correspondence with SMOS observations with the aim of providing a convenient tool for the validation of the different aspects and features of the mission. Thus, together with the favoured characteristics of the area, the VAS maintains a suitable network of ground soil moisture stations and keeps attentively operating the ESA ELBARA-II L-band radiometer that jointly and essentially constitute the definition of its robust strategy for the validation of the SMOS mission products. The site has and is gradually upgraded with other instruments that enlarge its capabilities: on the one hand, an eddy-covariance meteorological station with a complete suit of instruments facilitates the estimation of the surface energy and water budgets and, on the other hand, a set of fAPAR stations permit the estimation of the complementary biophysical vegetation parameters. But the most valuable validation element is the long-term dataset until now thus acquired that allows not only the direct validation of the products but to assist the mission Quality Working Group on tuning up some of the different level processor algorithms.

10:20 - 10:40 Validation SMOS L2 Soil Moisture Products with in-situ data over a Vegetated Tropical Region in Malaysia (Chuen Siang Kang)

Authors
  1. Chuen Siang Kang (TropicalMap Research Group, Department of Geoinformation, Faculty of Geoinformation & Real Estate, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia)
  2. Kasturi Devi Kanniah (TropicalMap Research Group, Department of Geoinformation, Faculty of Geoinformation & Real Estate, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia)
Abstract

The European Space Agency (ESA) has endorsed soil moisture (SM) as one of the essential climate variables (ECV) due to its important role in the global hydrological cycle and climate change. Nevertheless, the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) shows scarcity of soil moisture data within the humid tropical region. The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission in 2009 aims to provide surface soil moisture mapping over the globe with an accuracy of <0.04 m3m-3. To achieve this objective, Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) of SMOS retrieval of SM product is conducted worldwide. To date, validation of this product over the tropical region has received little or no attention. SMOS soil moisture retrieval over densely vegetated area with vegetation water content more than 5 kg m-2 is subject to known limitations, by degrading the quality of the soil moisture retrieval. Thus, an effort has been taken in this study to validate the SMOS L2 SM products (V551) in Malaysia to test the robustness of the product in a densely vegetated region. A soil moisture measurement network was established in the district of Kluang in the southern state of Johor, Malaysia, which mostly consists of oil palm plantations owned by the Malaysia Palm Oil Board, (MPOB). These stations collect soil moisture at different depths (5cm, 50cm and 100cm), surface soil temperature (5cm), air temperature and relative humidity at an hourly basis. There are two data collection stations established within the two SMOS L2 Soil Moisture product, georeferenced onto a Icosahedral Snyder Equal Area grid of aperture 4 and resolution 9 (ISEA 4H9) system, at a 15-km hexagonal pixel of the Discrete Global Grid (DGG), respectively. Seven months of SMOS L2 soil moisture products (June to December 2014) and in-situ soil moisture data measured at 5 cm depth from the two stations located within each DGG were averaged and validated, based on ascending and descending nodes. The bias of the validation was found ranging from 0.081 to 0.132 m3m-3 with RMSE (root mean square error) from 0.108 to 0.155 m3m-3. This results was found to be similar to a number of studies conducted previously at different regions. However a wet bias (overestimation of SMOS products) was found during the validation, while previous validation activities at other regions showed dry biases (underestimation). This first validation result over tropical region shows that further development and improvements on the SMOS L2 soil moisture retrieval algorithm, especially the forest model, is necessary, in order to meet the aim of SMOS mission.

10:40 - 11:00 Surface runoff estimation using smos observations and blend of weather radar information and rain gauge network in the jucar river basin, spain (Julio Alberto Garcia Leal)

Authors
  1. Julio Alberto Garcia Leal (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia)
  2. Eddy Herrera Daza (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia)
  3. Teodoro Estrela (Jucar River Basin Authority, Valencia, Spain)
  4. Arancha Fidalgo Pelarda (Jucar River Basin Authority, Valencia, Spain)
  5. Onofre Gabaldo (Jucar River Basin Authority, Valencia, Spain)
  6. Manuel Enrique Gamero Guandique (UNESP-Sorocaba, Brazil)
  7. Jorge Tamayo Carmona (Spanish State Agency for Meteorology (AEMET). Valencian Community Delegation)
  8. Ernesto Lopez-Baeza, (University of Valencia, Faculty of Physics, Earth Physics & Thermodynamics Dept)
Abstract

Surface runoff is defined as the amount of water that originates from precipitation that not infiltrated due to soil saturation and therefore circulates over the surface. A good estimation of surface runoff improves the design of draining systems, the structures for flood control and soil utilisation, for example. There exist several methods for estimation of surface runoff such as (i) rational method, (ii) isochrone method, (iii) triangular hydrograph, (iv) non-dimensional SCS hydrograph, (v) Temez hydrograph, (vi) kinematic wave model, represented by the dynamics and kinematics equations for a uniforme precipitation regime, and (vii) SCS-CN (Soil Conservation Service Curve Number) model.

This work presents an advanced application of the SCS-CN method by using ESA SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission soil moisture data and merging weather radar information and rain gauge network for more accurate estimates of precipitation. The area of application is the Jucar River Basin Authority area, Eastern Spain, where is one of our objectives to develop the SCS-CN model in a spatial way. The results are being preliminary compared to the simulations of a SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) precipitation-runoff model applied to the same area.

11:30 - 11:50 Hydro-Climatological Study of the Jucar River Basin Soil Moisture Fields with ERA-Interim/Land Reanalyses. Consistency with In-situ Measurements and SMOS Updated Reprocessed Data (Pau Beneto-Valle)

Authors
  1. Pau Beneto-Valles (University of Valencia, Faculty of Physics, Earth Physics & Thermodynamics Dept., Valencia, Spain (Now at Stockholm University. Dep. of Meteorology (MISU), Stockholm, Sweden))
  2. Joaquin Muñoz-sabater (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Reading, UK)
  3. Ernesto Lopez-Baeza, (University of Valencia, Faculty of Physics, Earth Physics & Thermodynamics Dept., Valencia, Spain)
Abstract

A hydro-climatological study using soil moisture estimations from ERA-Interim/Land (referred to as ERA-Land) Reanalyses has been carried out over the Jucar River Basin within the period 1980-2014.

ERA-Land product consistency has been evaluated with SMOS level-3 soil moisture retrievals (SMOS L3SM Optimal, CATDS(*) v2.6 in alignment with SMOS v6 L2 processor), previously validated at pixel scale using soil moisture measurements from the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) network, for the period October 2011 to December 2014.

This work is the natural continuation of our previous analysis (Beneto et al., 2015) where three different periods were distinguished in accordance with the SMOS level-3 reprocessed product available earlier. Here, now, the whole dataset is coherent corresponding to the reprocessing version mentioned above.

A quality control of in-situ data has been applied using precipitation measurements, as well as the operational soil moisture analysis from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast (ECMWF).

Given the good correlations found between in-situ and SMOS L3 data, SMOS L3 can be used as a good quality observation to investigate the reliability of ERA-Land soil moisture as a proxy variable to study the soil moisture climatology over all the Jucar River Basin.

A first comparison between SMOS L3 soil moisture and ERA-Land estimations was carried out at the ERA-Land pixel scale. Correlation coefficients vary depending on the pixel characteristics, and the analysis distinguishes between SMOS ascending and descending orbits.

Statistical results were also obtained for the comparison of averaged SMOS L3 soil moisture retrievals and ERA-Land estimations over the whole Jucar River Basin. The correlation coefficients are generally high and, again, the analysis distinguishes between SMOS ascending and descending orbits.

(*) CATDS: Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS

Pau Beneto-Valles, Joaquin Muñoz-Sabater, Ernesto Lopez-Baeza, 2015: Characterisation of the Jucar River Basin Hydrological Climatology with ERA-Land Reanalysis. Consistency with In-Situ and SMOS Soil Moisture Products. 2nd SMOS Science Conference, ESA-ESAC Madrid, Spain, 25-29 May 2015

11:50 - 12:10 Water Resource Development Plan in WGKKC2 watershed using Geospatial strategy (Swati Katiyar)

Authors
  1. Swati Katiyar (Department of Remote Sensing, Banasthali University)
  2. Pavan Kumar (Department of Remote Sensing, Banasthali University)
Abstract

Water is the natural resource which is facing the problems like scarcity, overexploitation etc. The watershed is a dynamic and unique place. The watershed approach is increasingly being deployed in various development programs to manage the water and land resources like soil and water conservation, dry land or rainfed farming, ravine reclamation, control of shifting cultivation etc. One of the major gaps in watershed development program has been the inadequate database for planning and to conduct research on the methodology and implementation. Watershed approach has been the single most important landmark in the direction of bringing in visible benefits in rural areas It needs the immediate actions to be conserved and managed. Watershed management tries to bring about the best possible balance in the environment between natural resources on the one side, and human and other living beings on the other have demonstrated the method for integrated sustainable rural development planning using remotely sensed data and GIS.Watershed provides a natural unit to provide the better management and development of an area in terms of executing development plans. Watershed management leads to development of area along with uplifting the standards of living beings. In the present study, the water resource development plans has been prepared using merged ortho-product of LISS-IV and Cartosat- 1D by considering the various criteria. The conservation structure zoning provides the better use of natural resources and conserving both soil and water resources.

Keywords: Watershed, LISS-IV, Development.

12:10 - 12:30 Delineation of Water Features into Different Classes in Uttarakhand state, India (Manohar Kumar)

Authors
  1. Manohar Kumar (Indian Institute of Remote Sensing)
  2. Poonam Tiwari (Indian Institute of Remote Sensing)
  3. Hina Pande (Indian Institute of Remote Sensing)
  4. Shefali Agarwal (India)
  5. Rajasweta Datta (Indian Institute of Remote Sensing)
Abstract

A new normalized rules were proposed for delineating and classifying water features in Landsat 8 satellite data for Uttarakhand state. Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance calculated from the Landsat 8 data and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) were taken as the inputs for this study. At first, the threshold conditions were applied on Surface wetness Index (SWI) for separating the snow or ice from images. Next the rules were defined for NDVI, NDWI, MNDWI, and NDPI for separating the water features in image. The shadows (caused due to hills) which look like water features in image has been removed from the slope map derived from the DEM. Binary water mask was generated by combining slope map and the ruleset output. This mask overlaid on the input image to extract the spectral values from it based on this mask. Finally the rules based on the spectral values of each band on the extracted TOA, to classify the water features in to different classes like, Clear, deep, turbid, and snow/ice. The overall accuracy attained in this analysis is 90%. The main aim is to classify the water features into different classes.

12:30 - 12:50 A Preliminary Approach Towards the Comparison Between AQUARIUS and SMOS Brightness Temperatures for Heteorogeneous Land Areas (Ernesto Lopez-Baeza)

Authors
  1. Ernesto Lopez-Baeza, (Universidad de Valencia, Faculty of Physics, Earth Physics & Thermodynamics Dept., Valencia, Spain)
  2. Amparo Benlloch (University of Valencia, Faculty of Physics, Earth Physics & Thermodynamics Dept., Valencia, Spain)
  3. Carolina Tenjo (University of Valencia, Image Processing Laboratory)
  4. David M. Levine (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD USA)
Abstract

Intercomparison between Aquarius and SMOS brightness temperatures (TBs) over land surfaces is more challenging than over oceans because land footprints are more heterogeneous.

In this work we are comparing Aquarius and SMOS TBs under coherente conditions obtained either by considering similar areas or according to land uses. The area of study was chosen in central Spain where we could get a significant number of matches between both instruments. The study period corresponded to 2012-2014. SMOS level-3 data were obtained from the Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS (CATDS) and Aquarius’ from the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PODAAC).

Land uses were obtained from the Spanish SIOSE facility (Sistema de Informacion de Ocupacion del Suelo en España) that uses a scale of 1:25.000 and polygon geometrical structure layer. SIOSE is based on panchromatic and multispectral 2.5 m resolution SPOT-5 images together with Landsat-5 images and orthophotos from the Spanish Nacional Plan of Aerial Orthophotography (PNOA).

SMOS ascending TBs were compared to inner-beam Aquarius descending half-orbit TBs coinciding over the study area at 06:00 h. The Aquarius inner beam has an incidence angle of 28,7º and SMOS data were considered for the 27,5º incidence angle. The Aquarius variable considered was rad_toa_X_nolc (TB at TOA with X pol and including Faraday’s rotation correction). The SMOS products corresponded to version 2.6x (data before 31st October 2013) and version 2.7x (data after 1st January 2014).

Intersections between both footprints have been analysed under both conditions of similar areas and land uses. For the latter, a linear combination of SMOS land uses has been obtained to match the larger Aquarius footprint. The results obtained permit to conclude that the land-uses approach gives better results. In both methods, also considering similar areas, the bias for H pol is notably reduced to 2 K.

Two more approaches are also under development, namely stratifying by means of a dryness index that accounts for the dynamics of the vegetation instead of assuming static characteristics for the land use map and what we consider to be a more physically approach that is including the Aquarius antenna pattern in the aggregation of the SMOS data

12:50 - 13:00 10 min. for discussion

Afternoon

15:00 - 15:20 The SOMOSTA (Soil Moisture Monitoring Station) Experiment. Soil Moisture Remote Sensing with GNSS-R at the Valencia Anchor Station (Cong YIN)

Authors
  1. Cong YIN (Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China)
  2. Ernesto Lopez-Baeza, (University of Valencia, Faculty of Physics, Earth Physics & Thermodynamics Dept)
  3. Manuel Martin-Neira (ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands)
  4. Roberto Fernandez-Moran (University of V)
  5. Niobe Peinado-Galan (University of Valencia, Faculty of Physics, Earth Physics & Thermodynamics Dept)
  6. Enrique Navarro (University of Valencia. Applied Physics Dept., Valencia, Spain)
  7. Alejandro Ejido (Starlab, Spain)
  8. Antonio Mollfulleda (Starlab, Spain)
  9. Weiqiang Li (Beihang University, China)
  10. Yunchang Cao (China Meteorological Administration, China)
  11. Bin Zhu (Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China)
  12. Dongkai Yang (Beihang University, China)
Abstract

In this paper, the SOMOSTA (Soil Moisture Monitoring Station) experiment on soil moisture monitoring by Global Navigation Satellite System Reflected signals(GNSS-R) at the Valencia Anchor Station is introduced. L-band microwaves have very good advantages in soil moisture remote sensing, for being unaffected by clouds and the atmosphere, and for the ability to penetrate vegetation. During this experimental campaign, the ESA GNSS-R Oceanpal antenna was installed on the same tower as the ESA ELBARA-II passive microwave radiometer, both measuring instruments having similar field of view. This experiment is fruitfully framed within the ESA – China Programme of Collaboration on GNSS-R.

The GNSS-R instrument has an up-looking antenna for receiving direct signals from satellites, and two down-looking antennas for receiving LHCP (left-hand circular polarisation) and RHCP (right-hand circular polarisation) reflected signals from the soil surface. We could collect data from the three different antennas through the two channels of Oceanpal and, in addition, calibration could be performed to reduce the impact from the differing channels. Reflectivity was thus measured and soil moisture could be retrieved by the L- MEB (L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere) model considering the effect of vegetation optical thickness and soil roughness.

By contrasting GNSS-R and ELBARA-II radiometer data, a negative correlation existed between reflectivity measured by GNSS-R and brightness temperature measured by the radiometer. The two parameters represent reflection and absorption of the soil. Soil moisture retrieved by both L-band remote sensing methods shows good agreement. In addition, correspondence with in-situ measurements and rainfall is also good.

15:20 - 15:40 AFREF: Concept, Progress and Preliminary Results from Permanent GNSS Networks in Africa (Salah Mahmoud)

Authors
  1. Salah Mahmoud (National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Cairo, Egypt)
  2. Richard Wonnaccott (National Surveying of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa)
  3. Hussein Farah (Center for Surveying and Remote Sensing, Nairobi, Kenya)
Abstract

The African Geodetic Reference Frame (AFREF) is conceived as a unified geodetic reference frame for Africa. It will be the fundamental basis for the national three-dimensional reference networks fully consistent and homogeneous with the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). When
fully implemented, its backbone will consist of a network of continuous, permanent GPS stations such that a user anywhere in Africa would have free access to, and would be at most 1000 km from, such stations. Full implementation will include a unified vertical datum and support for efforts to
establish a precise African geoid, in concert with the African Geoid project activities. The realization of AFREF has vast potentials for geodesy, mapping, surveying, geoinformation, natural hazards mitigation, earth sciences, etc. Its implementation will provide a major springboard for the transfer and enhancement of skills in surveying and geodesy and especially GPS technology and applications.
AFREF is, therefore, an African initiative to unify the geodetic reference frames of Africa based on the ITRF through a network of GNSS base stations at a spacing such users will be at most within ~1000 km of a base station.
First Reference Frame Solution of about 80 geodetic GPS stations in Africa has been started in February 2013 at some processing centers in Europe and Africa. Preliminary results of independent solutions being developed by various African scientific teams: HartRAO, South Africa; Ardhi University, Tanzania and SEGAL, University of Beria Interior, Portugal, show an accuracy of aligned ITRF 2008 using 42 IGS stations in E and N components with 3.0 mm and in U component 7.5 mm.

15:40 - 16:10 The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Observing Rain and Snow for Science and Society (Gail s Jackson)

Authors
  1. gail s jackson, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, USA)
  2. George Huffman (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, USA)
  3. Dalia Kirschbaum (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD, USA)
Abstract

The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international network of satellites that provide next-generation global observations of rain and snow. The GPM concept centers on the deployment of a GPM Core Observatory satellite (a joint NASA/JAXA partnership) carrying an advanced radar and radiometer system to measure precipitation from space and serve as a reference standard to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave satellites. The GPM Core Observatory launched on February 27th, 2014 at 1:37pm EST from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. GPM is perfectly poised to provide information on the precipitation component of water on Earth and how weather related events can impact life on our planet.

GPM is a mission with both scientific and application goals and as such has both high quality research data products and near real time (NRT) data products. The NRT products are released 1-4 hours after data collection and are important for operational users and weather related disaster applications. The research products are used for scientific research and climatology and weather/climate models. It is expected that the product most in demand will be GPM’s IMERG that, by incorporating IR data with the microwave constellation satellites, provides near-global precipitation rates at 30 minute by 0.1degree by 0.1degree grid box. IMERG’s best-case data release latency is 4 hours. IMERG’s instantaneous precipitation rates can be summed for accumulation maps of rain and snow.

GPM’s uniform precipitation data is (or will eventually be) global at a high temporal and spatial resolution. GPM measures both liquid rate and frozen snow. GPM thus has a unique role in providing datasets for science and societal applications related to the Earth’s water cycle at both regional and global scales and over long time periods if one includes the 17-year record of precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) along with the expected 10 years from GPM. With the nearly two years of data from GPM by the time of the COSPAR meeting, we’ll report progress in science related to advancing our understanding of the global water/energy cycle variability and freshwater availability, improving weather forecasting skills and climate models, and advancing prediction capabilities for flood, drought, freshwater resources and other hydrological applications.

16:10 - 16:30 Climatological Classification and Rainfall Retrieval Analysis of Precipitating Clouds in the Brazilian Northeastern Region Using the Precipitation Radar (PR) onboard TRMM Satellite (Rayana Araujo)

Authors
  1. Rayana Araujo (CPTEC/INPE)
  2. Carlos Denyson Azevedo (CPTEC/INPE)
  3. Daniel Vila, (CPTEC/INPE)
Abstract

Precipitation is one of the most important and more difficult variables to measures in the tropical region, especially in Northeastern Brazil (NEB) where the uneven distribution of rain-gauge stations and the lack of long-term ground radar datasets are critical factors to study some aspects of precipitating clouds in that region. This aims of this study is a twofold: (a) identify what types of clouds produce precipitation in NEB and how often these clouds occur and; (b) evaluate the performance of different Z-R relationships to retrieve rainfall in NEB region. Thus, for this study it was analyzed 15 years of Precipitation Radar (PR) data of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM) (period 1998-2012) to achieve the objectives of this research. TRMM satellite, while in orbit, had the scope to measure the amount of rainfall in tropical regions. One main instrument aboard this satellite is an active radar which aims to detect the three dimensional structure of clouds. In general, stratiform clouds are the most frequent category in NEB, but they are not associated with high accumulated values. On the other hand, deep convective clouds are not very frequent (the least frequent category) but they explain most of the rainfall occurred in continental areas. There is also a strong signal of shallow convective clouds (hot clouds) on coastal areas of Brazil and adjacent Northeast ocean that modulates rainfall in these areas. For the second part of this research, the Z-R relationship proposed by Tenorio (2010) showed a better performance for a set of stations in Alagoas and Sergipe states when compared with other approaches.

17:30 - 18:00 Understanding the Earth’s Water cycle – The Role of Satellite Observations (Christian Kummerow)

Authors
  1. Christian Kummerow (Colorado State University)
Abstract

Understanding the balance between Earth’s incoming and outgoing radiation, together with exchange of energy between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere above, is key to understanding not only the current climate, but also its sensitivity to future change. Because the exchange of energy between the Earth’s surface and atmosphere occurs primarily through evaporative cooling at the surface and the subsequent condensation of water vapor to form clouds and precipitation, imbalances in the energy flows immediately manifest themselves in the global water cycle that sustains both direct human consumption, agriculture, as well as many business that depend directly upon water availability. The clouds formed in the process of converting excess water vapor back to precipitation, in turn, present one of the least well understood climate feedback mechanisms. They can act both to increase the effect of excess carbon dioxide by causing further heating of the atmosphere through trapping of infrared radiation or can mitigate the impact of carbon dioxide by cooling the surface through the increased reflection of solar radiation. This talk will explore the progress in understanding the relationship between the water and energy variables, the role of satellite observations in that progress through the creation of an “Integrated Water and Energy Product” being created by GEWEX within the World Climate Research Project, and prospects for gaining deeper understanding related to processes that govern convective clouds – a key ingredient for increasing our confidence in future climate scenarios.

18:00 - 18:30 The CHUVA Project: A Contribution to the Understanding of the Water Cycle (Luiz A. T. Machado)

Authors
  1. Luiz A. T. Machado, (INPE-National Institute for Space Research)
  2. Daniel Vila (INPE-National Institute for Space Research)
  3. Rachel Albrecht (Universidade de São Paulo, IAG, Rua do Matão, 1226, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.)
  4. Gilberto Fisch (DCTA)
  5. Maria Silva Dias (Universidade de São Paulo, IAG, Rua do Matão, 1226, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.)
  6. Carlos Morales (Universidade de São Paulo, IAG, Rua do Matão, 1226, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.)
Abstract

The CHUVA project (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)) has conducted six successful field campaigns. This project was designed to investigate a broad variety of tropical weather regimes, ranging from warm clouds in northeastern Brazil to Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCC) in the border with Argentina, including, among other topics, the aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction, the cloud electrification, the rainfall satellite estimation and the hydrometeor characteristics. The aim of this presentation is to summarize the CHUVA contribution to the understanding of the water cycle in Brazil and describe the ongoing activities to set up a new GV site close to the city of Campinas in the state of São Paulo. The project was subdivided in 4 main topics, the cloud life cycle and characteristics, the precipitation estimation, the electrification and cloud modeling. To further the measurements collected by CHUVA, the project established several partnership with NASA, for warm rain, with NOAA and EUMETSAT for cloud electrification, with Argentina (weather service and UBA) for cloud organization and with the GoAmazon experiments (DOE and DLR). For GoAmazon two campaigns were realized, one in the wet season, with the DOE airplane and during the dry to wet season with two airplanes the G1 (DOE) and HALO (DLR) in the context of the project ACRIDICON-CHUVA. All these campaigns allowed to improve the knowledge in the four topics described above. Some examples will be described to highlight the contribution of each of these topics. Finally, we will introduce the proposal we are submitting to have the radar and others instruments in a fixed location that cloud be employed as a target validation region for GPM.

18:30 - 19:00

19:00 - 19:20