11/11 – Wednesday
9:30 - 10:10 Sustainable Water Resources Development Plan preparation using Geospatial approaches (Vandana Tomar)
- vandana Tomar (Haryan)
Water is the essentiality of life and is a natural resource which needs to be managed and assessed since it is facing the problems of scarcity, overexploitation and mismanagement. So the time has come to prioritise the needs and actions to be taken for water conservation and management. Watershed is the best approach in terms of executing development plans to provide the better management and development of an area. Watershed has been taken as a planning unit as it includes all the natural resources and the interrelationship between all them and living beings. Watershed management directs the ways to cover the whole area for development alongwith uplifting the standards of living beings. The watershed analysis encompasses the conservation of land and water resources at a large scale with planning and monitoring the sustainability of natural resources, in return results in rural reinforcement and development. In the present study, the water resource development plans has been prepared using satellite data of Cartosat-1D considering the various criterion and thematic layers. The Water resource development plans (WRDP) is prepared using the weighted overlay method. For WRDP, the various GIS thematic layers has been chosen as criteria for identification of different water conservation zones i.e. gully plugs, nala bunds, contour trenching etc.
10:10 - 10:35 Vegetation Health Status and Water Stress Monitoring from Space: Plant Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurement Demonstration from an Airborne Platform (Jeng-Hwa Yee)
- Jeng-Hwa Yee (Applied Physics Laboratory/Johns Hopkins University)
- John Boldt (Applied Physics Laboratory/Johns Hopkins University)
- Frank Morgan (Applied Physics Laboratory/Johns Hopkins University)
- Lawrence Corp (Science Systems & Applications Inc. (SSAI))
Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) by terrestrial vegetation is linked closely to photosynthetic efficiency that can be exploited to monitor the plant health status and water stress from space. The weak, broad continuum ChlF signal can be detected from the fill-in of strong O2 absorption lines or solar Fraunhofer lines in the reflected spectral radiation. The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS) instrument is designed and constructed specifically for the ChlF sensing from an airborne platform using this line fill-in technique. In this paper, we will present the results of ChlF measurements obtained from a NASA Langley King Air during two recent airborne campaigns (12/12/2014 and 5/20/2015) over various land, river, and vegetated targets in Virginia during stressed and growth seasons. Systematic ChlF measurements used for early warning detection of vegetation stress will be discussed.
10:35 - 11:00 Water observation (Jerome Benveniste)
11:30 - 12:10 Near Earth Water Sources: Ethics and Fairness (James Schwartz)
- James Schwartz (Department of Philosophy, Wichita State University)
Though essential resources such as water are in principle available in abundance in the solar system, for the foreseeable future these resources will have to be gathered from nearby, limited sources, such as the moon and near-earth asteroids. I shall argue that the prospect of manufacturing water from nearby extraterrestrial sources raises legal and ethical questions beyond those already raised under the current regulatory regime (viz., the anti-appropriation tenor of the Outer Space Treaty). Even if we establish an attractive private property regime for space, there is still the problem of ensuring a fair and equitable distribution of essential resources like water. I argue that effort must be made to deter the monopolization of water and to ensure its sustainable provision. Moreover we need a method for addressing the likely event that demand for extraterrestrial water outpaces supply. I propose that any such method prioritize the most worthy space objectives, where worth is a context-sensitive notion, in so far as it takes account of: (a) which space objectives are being pursued, (b) the ever-shifting needs of society, and (c) the degree to which existing and proposed space objectives satisfy the needs of society. My position is that, at present, the scientific exploration of the solar system is the most compelling space objective. Thus the resource needs of space science should not be compromised by diverting essential space resources like water to less compelling projects (such as space tourism).
12:10 - 12:35 Australian Post-Demographic Transition a risk to Ecosystems’ Viatality (Paula Andrea Sanchez)
- Paula Andrea Sanchez (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana)
- Maria Alejandra Cruz suarez (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana)
- Angela Guerrero (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia)
Decisions made today about infrastructure, health, water management, agriculture, biodiversity and housing will have lasting consequences for future generations.
The governments invest in research of climate change and its impact on the lives of its residents to help decision-makers understand and manage likely climate change impacts. Leading scientists advise climate change will cause increases to the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events.
This paper presents a discriminant analysis for three geographical regions (Western Australia, Southern Australia y Queensland) of Australia through various multiannual scale to extreme weather variables. The aim of the study is to determine the variables that differences in the regions and their behavior in each in order to determine risk factors and relate them to the decision making around.
12:35 - 13:00 Study of Precipitable water vapour in Central Himalaya using GPS Geodesy (Sneh Joshi)
Sneh Joshi (GBPIHED, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora and Deptartment of Physics,DSB Campus,Kumaun University Nainital)
Kireet Kumar (GBPIHED, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora)
Bimal Pande (Deptartment of Physics, DSB Campus,Kumaun University Nainital)
Krushna Chandra Gouda (CSIR 4th Paradigm Institute,Wind Tunnel Road, Bangalore-37)
Precipitable water vapour (PWV) is highly variable both in space and time across the earth’s atmosphere. Due to the energy conversion during the phase change of water vapour, it also acts as a greenhouse gas along with other gases which makes the earth’s surface warmer. Water vapour affects thermodynamics of the atmosphere and has impact on the weather & climatic processes. In the atmosphere PWV also acts as major error factor for space geodetic technique such as Global Positioning System (GPS). Knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in atmospheric PWV over the Himalayan region is important in forecasting regional weather and for understanding the global climate system.
In the present study basically the diurnal variations in PWV at Almora, a mountainous area of Central Himalaya, India, is analyzed by using the GPS-derived PWV and surface meteorological observation data during dry and wet season. It is observed that the PWV is generally minimum in the morning, increases in the afternoon to evening and again decreases to the midnight in both the wet and dry season. Diurnal variation between rainfall and PWV shows that at PWV increases before the rainfall and dropped after the rainfall events. The relation between PWVGPS and rainfall as well as temperature is studied, and it is found that
of PWVGPS is more pronounced with rainfall compared to surface temperature . It is also suggested from the study that the combination of PWV and other meteorological data can be used to explain the monsoon pattern in the region.
12/11 – Thursday
9:30 - 10:10 Palaeogeographic reconstruction of Minchin palaeolake system, South America: The influence of astronomical forcing (Andrea Sanchez Saldias)
- Andrea Sanchez Saldias (Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias. UDELAR. Uruguay)
- Richard A. Fariña (Universidad de la República, Facultad de Ciencias, Laboratorio de Paleobiología.)
Current palaeoclimatic reconstructions for the Río de la Plata region during the latest Pleistocene (30,000–10,000 yr BP) propose dry conditions, with rainfall at the Last Glacial Maximum amounting to one-third of today’s precipitation. Despite the consequential low primary productivity inferred, an impressive megafauna existed in the area at that time. Here we explore the influence of the flooding from a huge extinct system of water bodies in the Andean Altiplano as a likely source for wet regimes that might have increased the primary productivity and, hence, the vast number of megaherbivores. The system was reconstructed using specifically combined software resources, including Insola, Global Mapper v13, Surfer and Matlab. Changes in water volume and area covered were related to climatic change, assessed through a model of astronomical forcing that describes the changes in insolation at the top of the atmosphere in the last 50,000 yr BP. The model was validated by comparing its results with several proxies (CH4, CO2, D, 18O) from dated cores taken from the ice covering Antarctic lakes Vostok and EPICA Dome C. It is concluded that the Altiplano Lake system drained towards the southeast in the rainy seasons and that it must have been a major source of water for the Paraná-Plata Basin, consequently enhancing primary productivity within it.
10:10 - 10:35 Water Quality Index for the Evaluation of Irrigation Water Quality and its Impact on Climate using MODIS Sensors’ Based MOD13A1-NDVI Data (Pavan Kumar)
Pavan Kumar (Department of Remote Sensing, Banasthali University)
Swati Katiyar (Department of Remote Sensing, Banasthali University)
Ground water quality has reflective outcome on crop yield potential in semi-arid zones. Water can be poor quality due to salinity it contains as impurities present. Excessive salinity of irrigation water leads to interdiction of crop growth while smaller concentration of salt abates the water infiltration process. Water quality index has an ultimate goal for obtaining maximum production per unit of available water supply along with significance for remedy of domestic, industrial and irrigation water supply. Natural water body’s response environmental conditions which have been studied by scientists for identify sources and fates of contaminates. Water Quality Information Center provides electronic access to information on water quality and agriculture. The most important water quality directive on crop yield efficiency is the water salinity hazard as measured by electrical conductivity (ECw). The high ECw generally leads to physiological drought. The higher the EC, the less water is available to plants, even though the soil may appear wet. Geospatial technology plays a vital role in geospatial data acquisition of the water quality index at local, regional, and global scale. The advantage of Remote Sensing and GIS is that it helps in getting wide area observation, periodical and continuous measurement, and availability of digital data for processing standardization. This research paper focuses to assess the water quality for irrigation practices. The data of MOD13A1-NDVI (A Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer derived 16 day composite normalized difference vegetation index product, with spatial resolution of 500 m). (September, 2013) was used in GIS frame. Geospatial technology helps in getting spatial distribution of chemical parameters using inverse-distance weighted and modified Shepard’s method for spatial interpolation. This research paper illustrate statistical multiplication of water quality in terms of suitability index using pH, total dissolve solid, total hardness, alkalinity, sodium, chloride, nitrate, electric conductivity, and express the impact of water quality on regional crop yield. Higher water quality index depicts the best appropriateness for irrigation practices. In order to strengthen the crop productivity, we have suggested the diversified triple-based cropping systems with satellite mounted sensor derived NDVI products shown in Figure 1 as a holistic and feasible monitoring approach.
Index Terms- Crop yield, inverse distance weight, spatial interpolation, water quality index.
10:35 - 11:00 Intervening in Earth’s climate system through solar reflectors on Polar orbits (Francisco Salazar)
Francisco Salazar (University of Glasgow)
Colin McInnes (University of Glasgow)
Othon Winter (UNESP – FEG)
Simple climate models help to explain the natural variability of the Earth’s climate system. These models show that Earth`s climate can switch from a stable warm state to a cool state and is sensitive to relative small changes in solar insolation. The periodicity of ice ages (Milankovitch cycles) can be explained by these processes. Similarly, volcanic activity can have a significant short-term cooling effect, such as Tambora in 1815. However, if a period similar to the ‘little ice age` (1645-1715) recurred, or indeed future large volcanic events there could be significant economic consequences for energy and agriculture. Therefore, active strategies to avoid such short-term climate change may be useful. Several space-based climate engineering methods, including shading the Earth with a particle ring for active cooling, or the use of orbital reflectors to increase the total insolation of Mars for climate warming have been considered to modify climates in a controller manner. In this study, solar reflectors on polar orbits are proposed to intervene in the Earth’s climate system, involving circular polar orbits normal to the ecliptic plane of Earth. A resulting family of displaced polar orbits (non-Keplarian polar orbits) shall be characterized to mitigate future short-term natural climate variability, producing a modest global temperature increase, again to compensate for short-term cooling events. The two-body problem is considered, taking into account the effects of solar radiation pressure and the Earth’s J2 oblateness perturbation. Analytical and numerical models will be considered to predict the orbit evolution of such solar reflectors due to solar radiation pressure and the J2 effect.
Poster session S2
(Monday and Tuesday: 16:30 – 17:30)
- S2P1: Concept of Watershed Management for increasing productivity in Rainfed Areas (Amit Kumar)