Water from chemical, biological, and physical perspectives
12/11 – Thursday
17:00 - 17:15 Effect of water, treated with different doses of UV on the cultural properties of microorganisms; proposal of mitogenetic irradiation experiment in space (Viacheslav Ilyin)
17:15 - 17:30
17:30 - 17:45 Study of Seedling’s Photon Emission in Earth and Orbital Flight Conditions (Cristiano Gallep)
The visible and soft-UV range, low-intensity light emission from various organisms and plants is now extensively studied and applied in many fields, from medical diagnostics to ecology. It was found recently that this ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) from seedlings are synchronized with the local gravimetric tide. It is planned to compare sprouts’ UPE in lab. conditions and on the Earth orbit. For that, a special set-up is proposed to be installed at BION-3 satellite which flight is scheduled for 2018. In this set-up an array of 7 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) will measure UPE of different biological samples, their photon-count data encoded and memorized during the flight period. It is planned to measure UPE of sunflower seedlings during 3 weeks, changing the activated seedling samples every week. Similar experiments will be run in lab., using a 4-PMT chamber, continuously in parallel to the orbital ones. The acquired data should help in studying the UPE dependence on astrophysical factors, like Sun and Moon cycles as observed in Earth conditions. Time patterns and periodical features will be traced and determined, further compared to Earth and Cosmic cycles such gravity tide and occurrence of geomagnetic storms and cosmic ray showers.
– L.V. Belousov, “Biophotonics and coherent systems in Biology’, Springer, Berlin, 2007, p. 139.
– Moraes TA, Barlow PW, Klingelé E, Gallep CM; Spontaneous ultra-weak light emissions from wheat seedlings are rhythmic and synchronized with the time profile of the local gravimetric tide, Naturwissenschaften (2012) 99: 465-472.
– Gallep, C M et al; Lunisolar tidal synchronism with biophoton emission during intercontinental wheat-seedling germination tests. Plant Signalling & Behavior (2014), v. 9, p. e28671.
17:45 - 18:00 Investigating the ice porosity influence on the properties of embedded molecules using Computational Chemistry (Víctor de Souza Bonfim)
Both on Earth’s surface and in astrophysical environments, various molecules are found embedded into solid water structure. In the case of interstellar medium, the astrophysical ice mantles over dust grains surface can vastly vary in composition. For some cases, especially when we refer to complex molecules, the species of interest are extremely diluted in the icy matrix containing them. Besides solid water, the most constituent of such matrices are also CO2, CO, CH3OH, CH4 or even SO2 , among others, and a combination of them. As a first approximation, the net effect of the solvent medium (solid matrix) in a given chemical species which is there embedded can be accounted by simply considering the presence of an average electric field surrounding this species, this field being parameterized by the dielectric constant of the medium. This level of description can be achieved employing Polarized Continuum Model (PCM) approach , which is implemented in several computational Quantum Chemistry packages.
In this work we evaluate, through vibrational analysis from ab initio calculations, how the chemical environment influences some molecular properties, such as infrared (IR) spectrum profiles, of individual species embedded in the water solid phase employing the PCM approach. In the adopted effective-medium approach context, we assume that an increase in the ice porosity can be simulated by decreasing the dielectric constant of the same ice, starting from the relative permittivity value for the compact ice, and adopting the proper relation between the two simulated quantities.
The prototype molecules used here to check these effects are SO2, NH3, CO2 and CH4, constituting an example of two polar molecules and two nonpolar molecules, respectively. The different matrices (ice bulk) of astrophysical ices are simulated using different dielectric constant values representing different porosities of astrophysical ice at PCM approach. The effect of temperature is also considered since it is known it affects the dielectric constant of the solvent bulk.
This study will allow us a better understanding of some astrophysical ices properties and their interaction with radiation. For example, from the IR spectral profile of the diluted species or its IR absorption cross section it would be possible to infer physical and chemical properties of the surrounding medium. Preliminary results indicate that a high level of microporosity in the ice structure may cause significant influence on the vibrational frequencies of the embedded molecules, both for polar and apolar ones.
18:00 - 18:15 Formation, Excitation and Destruction of CH+ under the Influence of Water and Irradiation in Star Forming Regions (Arnold Benz)
Simple ionized hydrides were observed for the first time with Herschel/HIFI towards young star-forming objects of low to high mass. Of particular interest is CH+, a fundamental precursor molecule for hydrocarbons. Gaseous H2O reduces the abundance of C and C+, the starting products of CH+. The abundances of H2O and CH+ cannot be enhanced at the same place. Strong irradiation by FUV or X-rays reduces H2O, and CH+ gets more abundant. Thus CH+ signals high irradiation, but low H2O abundance.
CH+ was observed to be enhanced in most objects to an abundance of typically 10^-10 relative to hydrogen. This suggests an internal source of irradiation. The observed ratio of CH+/OH+ is consistent with irradiation by far UV as expected from chemical modelling. For low-mass objects the required FUV flux is between 1 – 200 times the ISRF at the location of the molecules. If the FUV flux originates at the central protostar, an FUV luminosity up to 1.5 L_sun is required. The UV flux in two high-mass objects is 30 and 90 times the ISRF using absorption lines, and of the order of 500 ISRF using emission lines. It is smaller than the unattenuated flux expected from the central object(s). The observed CH+/OH+ ratio, and other ratios such as OH+/H2O+ and CH+/C+, can only be modelled for low molecular hydrogen densities.
The targeted lines of CH+, OH+, H2O+, and C+ are detected mostly in blue-shifted absorption. The velocity shift is of the order of 2 – 10 km/s. The ion molecules are proposed to form in FUV irradiated cavity walls that are shocked by the disk wind. The shock region is turbulent, broadening the lines to some 1 – 12 km/s. It is driven by the outward motion of the wind to blue shifts of 0 to -10 km/s. The blue-shifted H2O emission line (Kristensen et al. 2013) may be related but not coincident with the CH+ emitting region.
18:15 - 18:30 Electric Dipolar Memory Storage in Ordered Water Domains (Allan Widom)
It is well known that long polymer chains in ionic solution can store information in the sense of computer science. Much of the biological genetic code is stored in such polymer chains. As first discussed by Benveniste, even pure water is capable of storing information with a memory capacity stored in quantum electrodynamic Preparata water domains. Most simply stated, some magnetic information storage devices have memory in virtue of ordered magnetic dipole moments while water has memory in virtue of ordered electric dipole moments. The physical chemistry of ordered ferro-electricity in water will be discussed in detail.
18:30 - 18:45 Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics of Water (John Swain)
Water displays a wide range of highly anomalous properties and evidence exists from a variety of sources that the liquid state supports a variety of nontrivial structures. Some can be understood from a largely classical viewpoint while others require an explicitly quantum treatment. An introduction to this rapidly evolving field is provided as well as some of its implications and possible future directions.
Poster session S5
(Monday and Tuesday: 16:30 – 17:30)
- S5P1: Heavy Metal Concentrations in Tissues of the Shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus (De Haan, 1844) From Jazan, Southern Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia (Saleh Alfarraj)
- S5P2: Chemical and photochemical reactions along the atmospheric mass loss of Hot Jupiters and possible influence on the water content of habitable planets (Heloisa Boechat)
- S5P3: Preterit drainage of the continental shelf Ceara of State (Marcus Silva)